Socially-prescribed pressure/perfectionism is the perception that others will value you only if you are perfect (“The better I do, the better I’m expected to do”).
Other-imposed pressure/perfectionism can result from unrealistic expectations from others and/ or the professionalization of youth sports.
Self-imposed pressure/perfectionism can result from the internally motivated and irrational desire to be perfect (“If you are dedicated, you ‘should’ be able to perform without errors”).
Want More Information?
Cooper, Casey. “What’s Hurting our Kids.” 7 Mar. 2018. MP3 file.
Curran, T., & Hill, A. P. (2019). Perfectionism is Increasing Over Time: A Meta-analysis of Birth Cohort Differences from 1989 to 2016. Psychological Bulletin, 145(4):410–429.
Randall, Edin T., et al. (2015). Understanding Affluent Adolescent Adjustment: The Interplay of Parental Perfectionism, Perceived Parental Pressure, and Organized Activity Involvement.” J. Adolesc., 41:56–66.
Schwebel, Frank J., et al. (2016). Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences.
Child Development Research, 2016:1–13.